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The tip of the Nordic ultimate , by Heikki Patomäki (Le Monde diplomatique

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‘NATO’ beer from Olaf Brewing, Finland, Might 2022

Soila Puurtinen · Lehtikuva · AFP · Getty

During the chilly battle, the Nordic international locations have been extensively seen because the mannequin of an enlightened, antimilitaristic society guided by social justice and morally superior to these opposing poles of modernity, the USA and Soviet Union. And the 2 international locations that finest represented this mannequin have been Sweden and Finland.

The international locations share an extended historical past: for hundreds of years Finland was a part of the dominion of Sweden, which misplaced it to Russia throughout the Napoleonic wars. Since 1814, Sweden has managed to keep away from wars or declare itself impartial, as within the second Schleswig (Dano-Prussian) battle of 1864.

Finland’s historical past has not been fairly so peaceable, although as an autonomous a part of the Russian empire, it was the primary European nation to undertake common suffrage, in 1906. The Russian Revolution led to Finnish independence — and in addition to a civil battle in 1918 between the Reds (social democrats) and Whites (conservatives), who received with navy assist from Germany. Newly unbiased Finland then intervened within the Russian civil battle till 1920, when the Tartu treaty was signed. In opposition to all odds, Finland stayed democratic and the social democrats have been allowed to participate in elections and be a part of coalition governments from the Twenties.

Whereas social democracy gathered energy in Sweden all through the Twenties and Thirties, Finland went by a turbulent interval, together with a failed fascist rebellion in 1930. In Sweden, the Social Democratic Social gathering got here to energy in 1932 and remained in authorities, alone or in coalition, till 1976. With its social reforms and moral management, mirrored in an actively internationalist international coverage, social-democratic Sweden grew to become the main consultant of the Nordic mannequin.

Settlement with the Soviet Union

In the meantime, after two wars towards the Soviet Union (1939-44), the second as an ally of Nazi Germany, Finland noticed main change with the electoral positive aspects of the Social Democratic Social gathering of Finland and the brand new, additional left (…)

Full article: 1 684 phrases.

(1Urho Kekkonen, Neutrality: the Finnish Place, Heinemann, London, 1970.

(2See Heikki Patomäki, ‘Past Nordic Nostalgia: envisaging a social/democratic system of worldwide governance’, Cooperation and Battle, vol 35, no 2, Sage, June 2000.

(3Magnus Ryner, Capitalist Restructuring, Globalisation and the Third Approach: Classes from the Swedish mannequin, Routledge, London/New York, 2002.

(4See Heikki Patomäki, The Political Economic system of World Safety: Warfare, future crises and adjustments in international governance, Routledge, 2008.



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