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Punitive Demolition of Properties and Evictions in India

The Wire (New Delhi) — The newest report of the Housing and Land Rights Community (HLRN), a New Delhi-based NGO, on pressured evictions in India has pointed to the brand new disturbing development of “demolitions as a punitive measure” by varied state governments and famous that these “arbitrary acts” of demolishing of properties and constructions of minority communities have compounded the vulnerabilities of girls, kids, older individuals, and individuals with disabilities.

The report has additionally highlighted the vulnerabilities of marginalized communities to pressured evictions. It said that whereas “a complete of 158 incidents of pressured eviction/house demolition have been documented” in 2021, about 15 million folks throughout rural and concrete areas proceed to face the specter of eviction from their habitats.

Whereas 2021 was a yr through which the second wave of the Covid pandemic ravaged India–inflicting quite a few deaths and immense misery–the report famous that even amidst such a humanitarian disaster, the authorities continued with their drives to displace folks. Over 59% of these displaced didn’t even obtain any resettlement help or compensation from the state, the report says.

Within the preface to the report, HLRN Govt Director Enakshi Ganguly wrote that it was “unlucky that through the years, this case has solely worsened and the magnitude of individuals displaced has elevated regardless of the intervening pandemic.”

She added that the report additionally encapsulates the main evictions that have been carried out this yr (January to July) and “highlights a worrying development of state demolishing properties as a punitive measure, violating all due course of norms and established human rights procedures.”

Total, the report stated that final yr authorities authorities at central and state ranges demolished over 36,480 properties, thereby evicting over 207,000 folks from their properties. And between January and July this yr, it added that state authorities throughout the nation demolished over 25,800 properties, affecting over 124,000 folks.

Demolitions as Punitive Measure

Coming to the difficulty of governments, specifically these helmed by the ruling Bharatiya Janata Get together (BJP), enterprise demolitions as a punitive measure, the report referred to quite a few situations the place households have been demolished as a way of meting out punishment following communal clashes.

The report stated “following the communal violence in the course of the celebrations for the Hindu festivals of Ram Navami and Hanuman Jayanti this April within the state of Madhya Pradesh, sixteen homes and 29 retailers of Muslim households” have been demolished in Khargone district. It added that “statements from authorities officers and ministers indicated the intention of utilizing demolitions as punishment towards those that have been seen by the state as taking part within the communal clashes.”

Equally, the report pointed to demolitions that have been carried out in Khambat and Himmatnagar within the state of Gujarat the place Muslim households have been affected.

The report additionally identified how round 25 retailers, merchandising carts, and homes primarily belonging to Muslims in Jahangirpuri, Delhi, have been eliminated after being termed “encroachments” (constructed on land to which they don’t have any rights) following the clashes in the course of the Hanuman Jayanti competition procession on April 20 of this yr.

On this case, it stated, officers from the North Delhi Municipal Company (NDMC) arrived with twelve firms of the Central Reserve Police Pressure and started the demolition drive early within the morning with out ample discover, and continued with the demolition regardless of an order from the Supreme Courtroom later within the morning to keep up the established order.

Demolitions Justified as “Eradicating Encroachments”

Likewise, this June, the report stated, the municipal authorities in Prayagraj and Saharanpur districts of the state of Uttar Pradesh demolished properties of Muslim households allegedly to take away “encroachments” quickly after the neighborhood members held protests towards controversial remarks towards the Prophet Muhammad.

In Jirapur village of Madhya Pradesh, too, the report stated, state authorities demolished eighteen properties of Muslim households accused in an altercation that occurred between native Muslim and Dalit communities. It added that round thirty homes have been additionally partially demolished in a predominantly Muslim neighborhood–allegedly to take away “encroachments” from the realm following the incident.

Discovering a sample in these actions, the report stated, “All of the evictions and demolitions have been carried out by authorities businesses professedly to ‘clear encroachments’ and take away ‘unlawful constructions’ from public land. Nonetheless, the state authorities have used this reasoning to arbitrarily choose and demolish settlements.”

Citing comparable actions in varied different components of the nation, together with Mansarovar Park in Delhi, the report identified how, prior to now, state governments in India have been recognized to demolish properties of individuals accused of rape and different crimes as a punitive measure. However this time, it stated, “current incidents of demolition spotlight pressured evictions being utilized by the federal government as a measure of punishment.”

UN Denounces Collective Punishment of Minority Communities

The HLRN report stated the style through which communities have been focused by such selective actions has not gone unnoticed: “Taking cognizance of the alarming state of affairs, in June 2022, the United Nations Particular Rapporteur on Enough Housing together with the UN particular rapporteurs on freedom of faith and minority points, despatched a joint communication to the federal government of India strongly condemning the destruction of Muslim properties and properties by state authorities to mete out ‘collective punishment’ to the neighborhood,” it stated.

The report, the fifth to be introduced out since 2017, has additionally delved into how pressured evictions and residential demolitions have been persevering with with impunity throughout the nation. “With the state demolishing 36,486 homes within the yr, at the least 100 properties have been destroyed every single day. This quantities to at the least 567 folks being evicted every single day or 24 folks shedding their properties each hour within the yr 2021,” it stated.

Even in the course of the peak of the second wave of Covid, in April and Might 2021, the report stated over 13,750 folks have been forcefully evicted from their properties.

Most Evictions Justified as Forest and Wildlife Safety

On the reasons being furnished for such evictions, it stated, “the utmost share of individuals (57%) have been evicted, purportedly, for forest and wildlife safety. This resulted within the pressured eviction and displacement of at the least 117,623 folks throughout the nation.” Other than this, it stated, many have been evicted within the identify of clearance of “encroachments,” beautification of town, or conservation of our bodies of water.

The report identified that “courtroom orders and their implementation by state authorities” resulted within the eviction of over 106,000 folks in at the least eleven incidents of demolitions.

It stated the weaker sections have been additionally badly affected by these actions: “No less than 28% of individuals affected by pressured evictions in 2021, for which data is out there, belong to marginalized teams, together with, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Different Backward Courses, nomadic communities, migrant staff, and Muslims,” it stated.

Over a Million Evicted in Final 5 Years

This aside, the report stated, numerous folks continued to endure evictions because of fires and pure disasters. It stated “a number of circumstances of fireplace in low-income settlements affected over 16,430 folks in numerous components of India” and “the variety of folks displaced in India because of pure disasters and conflicts elevated in 2021.”

As for the present calendar yr, the report stated over 100,000 folks have already been evicted this yr. Between January and July, it stated, over 25,800 homes have already been demolished affecting 124,450 folks throughout the nation. Total, it added that just about 1,000,000 folks have confronted evictions over the previous 5 years.


In view of the hardship that such evictions and demolitions trigger to the affected folks, HLRN had additionally made a number of suggestions to the central and state governments. It has referred to as for an “rapid moratorium on evictions for any cause”; a cease to demolitions as a way of meting out abstract punishment; and adherence to “due course of” and making certain that free, prior, and knowledgeable consent of all affected individuals is taken earlier than any eviction is finalized.

The group additionally demanded that each one evicted households who’ve been ready to be rehabilitated for years be urgently supplied different lodging, and the rights to land of city and rural communities ought to be acknowledged.

“Compelled evictions result in the displacement of households, lack of properties and livelihood, disruption of youngsters’s schooling, extreme influence on well being, and bodily and psychological trauma amongst different penalties. It disproportionately impacts marginalized communities and divests them from accessing essentially the most fundamental amenities, important for a life with dignity,” it stated.

This text was initially printed in The Wire. Minor edits for fashion and content material.

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